Ngeso Lo Khozi - The Right to Self-determination and the Right to Secession.
In the few past weeks, we have saw a surge in the push for Matebeleland independence. A series of interviews from Mthwakazi Republic Party (a political party agitating for self-determination and u Loyiko a South African theatre group agitating for Matebele genocide justice) all give evidence of the boiling point of Matebeleland question.
In the context of this argument the Government of Zimbabwe has decided to be silent since the emergence of self-determination activism in Zimbabwe but this has not helped the situation the claims of both self-determination have continued to grow louder and bigger and has far reaching consequences on the sovereignty and later the existence of Zimbabwe, (Zimbabwe might cease to exist after the exit of Matebele) .
This write-up attempts to discuss the causal relationship between the right of self-determination and right to secession. Central to this discussion is the question that does self-determination result in secession. If so what are the conditions of self-determination.
This article draws evidence from the General Assembly had adopted in 1960 the Resolution 1514, also known as the "Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples" or simply "Declaration on Decolonization". It stated that all people have a right to self-determination and proclaimed that colonialism should be brought to a speedy and unconditional end.
Under United Nation declaration self-determination does not always translate to secession. Self-determination is a right of every individual and a group of people and it can be attained within a parent state. This has been the case of Quebec which is recognised as a self-governing state within the parent state of Canada.
Nonetheless under United Nations Law and decolonisation process a self-determination translate into secession under the following conditions
(1) In the presence of a flawed decolonisation process (If a state has a history of independence prior to colonisation and by the time of decolonisation its sovereignty was not restored).
(2) If there is a history of genocide and the relationship is broken down.
(3) If these two conditions are satisfied then there must be a referendum of a popular mandate to secede.
These conditions have resulted in independence of many contemporary sovereign states. Eretria in 1991, Serbia 2006, Kosovo 2010, Montenegro 2006, Check Republic 1993, Slovenia 1993 and South Sudan 2012. Hard on their heels are the Scots, Catalonians and the Matebele.
Regarding both the self-determination and secession do you think the people of Matebeleland have both the right to self-determination and the right to secession.
This article attempts to empower restorationist of sovereignty of Matebeleland on the fundamental aspects of international law. For further reading please consult, United Nations articles on decolonisation process, Karen Parker an international lawyer and many academic articles on this subject.